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Chapter IV (notes)

CONTESTED BORDERS IN THE CAUCASUS

UN and CSCE Policies in Transcaucasia


Olivier Paye & Eric Remacle

Notes

  1. We would like to thank the following for their comments, suggestions and concrete help in access to primary documentation: Nicolas Bardos-Feltoronyi, Werner Bauwens, Marc de Schoutheete de Tervarent, Luc Gardien-Fuhrmann, Bernard Hauwen, Bahadir Kaleagasi, Amb. Wilfried Nartus, Jean-Luc Onckelinx, Bent Rosenthal, Col. Wilfried Van Hoeck and Heinz Vetschera, as well as the editor of this book and the other contributors.
  2. Normative actions by the Security Council are based either on Chapter VI ('Peaceful settlement of disputes') or on Chapter VII ('Action with respect to threats to peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of aggression') of the Charter. Operative actions are based only on Chapter VII.
  3. This ambition was officially acknowledged by the CSCE Helsinki Summit of July 1992 (Helsinki Summit Declaration. Promises and Problems of Change, Helsinki, 10 July 1992, Nos. 20 and 25).
  4. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Agenda for Peace, New York, United Nations, 1992, Para. 25. For an overview of all UN fact-finding missions, see Walter Dorn, Keeping Watch for Peace: Fact-finding by the UN Secretary-General, Third Workshop on Verification of Arms Control, Geneva, 23-26 August 1993.
  5. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Report on the work of the organization (Sept. 1991-Sept. 1992), New York, United Nations, 1992, Para. 126.
  6. UN Documents S/24542 (10 September 1992) and S/24637 (8 October 1992).
  7. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Report on the Work of the Organization (Sept. 1992-Sept. 1993), New York, United Nations, 1993, Para. 321.
  8. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Report on the Work of the Organization (Sept. 1991-Sept. 1992), Para. 126. The UN experts did not find any proof of the use of chemical weapons by the Armenians.
  9. UN Document S/25539 (6 April 1993).
  10. UN Document S/25600 (14 April 1993).
  11. UN Document S/24794 (10 November 1992).
  12. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Report on the Work of the Organization (Sept. 1992-Sept. 1993), Para. 334 and UN Document S/25188 (28 January 1993), Para. 3.
  13. In October 1993, the Secretary-General sent a human rights mission to Georgia and Abkhazia at the request of the Georgian President, Eduard Shevardnadze. The mission recorded a number of human rights violations by both warring parties. See the report of the mission, UN Document S/26795 (17 November 1993).
  14. UN Document, 12 May 1992. Two previous statements concerned the admission of Armenia and Azerbaijan to the UN, see UN Documents S/23496 (29 January 1992) and S/23597 (14 February 1992).
  15. UN Document S/25199 (29 January 1993).
  16. UN Document S/25539 (6 April 1993).
  17. UN Document S/25600 (14 April 1993), Para. 10.
  18. UN Documents S/24542 (10 September 1992), S/24637 (8 October 1992), S/25198 (29 January 1993) and S/26032 (2 July 1993).
  19. UNSC Resolution 822 (30 April 1993), 5th preamble.
  20. UNSC Resolutions 849 (8 July 1993), 858 (24 August 1993) and 876 (19 October 1993).
  21. For Nagorno-Karabakh, see UNSC Resolutions 822 (29 April 1993), 7th preamble; 853 (29 July 1993), 8th preamble; 874 (14 October 1993), 5th preamble; 884 (12 November 1993), 6th preamble. For Abkhazia, see UNSC Resolution 876 (19 October 1993), Para. 1.
  22. UNSC Resolutions 822 (29 April 1993), 8th preamble; 853 (29 July 1993), 9th preamble; 874 (14 October 1993), 6th preamble; 884 (12 November 1993), 7th preamble. These principles may have been formulated by Parallelism with statements issued by the CSCE.
  23. The Security Council affirmed the same principle in relation to the Bosnian case, see UNSC Resolution 770 (13 August 1992), 4th preamble and subsequent ones such as UNSC Resolution 820 (1993), preambles D and E.
  24. UNSC Resolutions 876 (19 October 1993), Para. 2 and 884 (12 November 1993), Para. 1.
  25. UNSC Resolutions 853 (29 July 1993), Para. 1 and 884 (12 November 1993), Para. 1.
  26. UNSC Resolution 896 (31 January 1994), Para. 12.
  27. According to the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), in January 1994 there were some 300,000 refugees from Abkhazia either in Georgia (about 250,000) or in other countries (about 50,000): see UN Document S/1994/80 (25 January 1994), Para. 13. In his annual report of September 1993 (Para. 324), the Secretary-General quoted the figure of 50,000 persons displaced "by recent fighting" in Nagorno-Karabakh.
  28. UNSC Resolutions 822 (29 April 1993), 6th preamble; 853 (29 July 1993), 7th preamble; 874 (14 October 1993), 7th preamble; 884 (12 November 1993), 8th preamble.
  29. UNSC Resolution 896 (31 January 1994), Para. 11. See also UNSC Resolution 876 (19 October 1993), Para. 5.
  30. Before the condemnation of Iraq for the invasion of Kuwait in UNSC Resolution 660 (2 August 1990), Para. 1 , only Israel had been explicitly condemned in a UNSC resolution. Since the Gulf War, the Security Council has more frequently condemned a specific party. For instance, the Khmer Rouge in the civil war in Cambodia, UNSC Resolution 792 (27 November 1992), Para. 7; UNITA in the civil war in Angola, UNSC Resolution 811 (12 March 1993), Para. 1; or Serbia for its intervention in Bosnia, UNSC Resolution 752 (30 May 1992), Para. 1.
  31. UNSC Resolution 876 (19 October 1993), Para. 2.
  32. UNSC Resolution 853 (29 July 1993), Para. 3.
  33. UNSC Resolutions 876 (19 October 1993), Para. 4 and 881 (3 November 1993), Para. 3.
  34. UNSC Resolution 822 (29 April 1993), Para. 1.
  35. UNSC Resolutions 822 (29 April 1993), Para. 2; 853 (29 July 1993), Para. 11.
  36. UN Charter, Art. 2, Para. 4.
  37. On Nagorno-Karabakh, see UNSC Resolutions 822 (29 April 1993), Para. 3; 853 (29 July 1993), Para. 11; 874 (14 October 1993), Para. 9. On Abkhazia, see UNSC Resolutions 876 (19 October 1993), Para. 7 and 892 (22 December 1993), Para. 6.
  38. See, for example, UNSC Resolutions 794 (3 December 1992), Para. 5 (on Somalia); 811 (12 March 1993), Para. 11 (on Angola); or 819 (16 April 1993), Para. 8 (on Bosnia).
  39. On Armenias involvement, see UN Document S/ 25600 (14 April 1993), Para. 10 and on Russias participation, several allegations made by Eduard Shevardnadze (Le Soir, 18 March 1993).
  40. UNSC Resolution 876 (19 October 1993), Para. 8.
  41. Le Soir, 5 July 1993.
  42. UNSC Resolutions 874 (14 October 1993), Para. 10; 884 (12 November 1993), Para. 6.
  43. UNSC Resolution 853 (29 July 1993), Para. 9.
  44. UNSC Resolution 884 (12 November 1993), Para. 2.
  45. On Serbia, see UNSC Resolution 752 (30 May 1992), Para. 1.
  46. On Serbia, see UNSC Resolution 752 (30 May 1992), Paras. 4-8.
  47. Without deciding on sanctions against Croatia, in May 1992 the Security Council demanded the withdrawal of all elements of the Croatian army still present on Bosnian territory, UNSC Resolution 752 (30 May 1992), Para. 2.
  48. For example, the 'Group of Four Friends of the Secretary-General' (Columbia, Mexico, Spain, Venezuela) in El Salvador, UNSC Resolution 714 (30 September 1991), Para. 3; the Arab League, the OAU and the OIC in Somalia, UNSC Resolution 794 (3 December 1992), 3th preamble; the OAS in Haiti, UNSC Resolution 841 (16 June 1993); or the EC and the CSCE in the former Yugoslavia, UNSC Resolution 713 (25 September 1991), Para. 1.
  49. UNSC Resolutions 892 (22 December 1993), 9th preamble and 896 (31 January 1994), 8th preamble. These resolutions take account of the conclusions of the Rome meeting of the CSCE Council (see below). In particular, the Security Council expressed its support for the peace efforts of the CSCE's Chairman-in-Office, see UNSC Resolutions 849 (9 July 1993), Para. 5; 858 (24 August 1993), Para. 10; 876 (19 October 1993), Para. 9; 881 (3 November 1993), Para. 2.
  50. UNSC Resolutions 849 (8 July 1993), Para. 4; 876 (19 October 1993), Para. 9; 881 (3 November 1993), Para. 2.
  51. UNSC Resolution 858 (24 August 1993), Para. 6.
  52. UNSC Resolutions 892 (22 December 1993), Para. 5; 896 (31 January 1994), Para. 14.
  53. UNSC Resolutions 822 (29 April 1993), Para. 1; 853 (29 July 1993), Paras. 6 and 8; 874 (14 October 1993), Paras. 2, 3 and 5; 884 (12 November 1993), 2nd preamble and Para. 3.
  54. UNSC Resolutions 874 (14 October 1993), Para. 1 and 884 (12 November 1993), Para. 5.
  55. For example, see 'United Nations Inter-Agency Consolidated Appeal for Emergency Humanitarian Assistance for the Most Vulnerable Among the Conflict-Affected Population in Georgia', Departement of Humanitarian Affairs, February 1993, UN document DHA/93/37.
  56. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Report on the Work of the Organization (Sept. 1992-Sept. 1993), Paras. 324 and 333.
  57. See UNSC Resolutions 776 (14 September 1992).
  58. UNSC Resolution 748 (31 March 1992), Para. 6.
  59. UNSC Resolution 777 (19 September 1992), Para. 1.
  60. These admissions followed the recommendations of the Security Council which developed into UNSC Resolutions 735 (29 January 1992) on Armenia and 742 (14 February 1992) on Azerbaijan.
  61. Recommendation of UNSC Resolution 763 (6 July 1992).
  62. Economic measures were adopted by the Security Council only against Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. On Southern Rhodesia, see UNSC Resolutions 217 (20 November 1965), Para. 6; 232 (16 December 1966); 253 (29 May 1968) and 277 (18 March 1970); and on South Africa, UNSC Resolution 418 (4 November 1977).
  63. See UNSC Resolutions 661 (6 August 1990); 748 (31 March 1992) and 883 (8 November 1993); 757 (30 May 1992), 787 (16 November 1992) and 820 (April 1993); 841 (16 June), Para. 3, respectively.
  64. See UNSC Resolutions 792 (27 November 1992), Para. 10 and 864 (15 September 1993), Para. 19, respectively.
  65. UNSC Resolution 876 (19 October 1993), Para. 8.
  66. Similar arms embargoes were proclaimed by the Security Council in its Resolutions 713 (25 September 1991), Para. 6, on the whole of Former Yugoslavia; 733 (23 January 1992), Para. 5, on Somalia; 788 (17 November 1992), Para. 8, on Liberia; 841 (16 June 1993), Para. 5, on Haiti; 918 (16 May 1994), Para. 13, on Rwanda.
  67. UNGA Resolution 1807 (XVIII) (14 December 1962).
  68. UNSC Resolutions 787 (16 November 1992), Paras. 12-13 and 820 (April 1993), Paras. 16-17. SAMs are based on the London Agreement of 27 August 1992, The London Conference, Specific Decisions, points 6 and 7. For an overview of their work, see Antonio Napolitano, 'Sanctions as a Possible Tool of Preventive Diplomacy', in The Challenge of Preventive Diplomacy. The experience of the CSCE, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Stockholm, 1994, pp. 138-157.
  69. For example, see UNSC Resolutions 661 (6 August 1990), Para. 6 (against Iraq); 748 (31 March 1992), Para. 9 (against Libya); 757 (30 May 1992), Para. 13 (against Serbia).
  70. UN Document S/26023 (1 July 1993), Para. 14.
  71. UNSC Resolutions 854 (1993), Para. 1 and 854 (24 August 1993), Para. 2.
  72. UN Doc. S/26023 (1 July 1993), Paras. 8-11.
  73. UNSC Resolution 881 (3 November 1993), 4th preamble and Para. 4. In December 1993, the Security Council agreed to enlarge the UNOMiG mission to 55 people, UNSC Resolution 892 (22 December 1993), Para. 2.
  74. See UN Documents S/1994/253 (3 March 1994) and S/1994/312 (18 March 1994).
  75. UN Documents S/1994/80 (25 January 1994), Para. 22 and S/1994/253 (3 March 1994), Annex, Para. 4.
  76. This concept is similar to UNPROFOR's first mandate in the territories of Croatia controlled by the Serbs. See UN Document S/23280 (11 December 1991), Annex III.
  77. UN Documents S/1994/253 (3 March 1994) and S/1994/312 (18 March 1994).
  78. UNSC Resolution 896 (31 January 1994), 5th preamble.
  79. UN Document S/1994/80 (25 January 1994), Para. 22.
  80. UN Document S/1994/583, Annex I.
  81. The Committee of Senior Officials (CSO) of the CSCE brings together representatives of Foreign Ministries of all Participating States. Established since the institutionalisation of the CSCE at the Paris Summit of November 1990, it meets every three months in Prague and holds extraordinary sessions if needed. The CSO is responsible for the overview, management and co-ordination of CSCE activities. It is the central body for consultation on current political issues and the implementation of the decisions taken every two years by the Summit and every year by the Council.
  82. This statement was issued for the first time by the CSO on 10 October 1991 (Third Additional Meeting of the CSO, The Situation in Yugoslavia, Annex to Journal No. l1, Prague, 10 October 1991), and confirmed in 1992 by the Council of Foreign Ministers when it created the "consensus-minus-one" procedure for dealing with such cases (CSCE Council, Prague Document on Further Development of CSCE Institutions and Structures, Prague, 30-31 January 1992, Para. 16) and by the Summit of Heads of State and Government (Helsinki Summit Declaration. Promises and Problems of Change, Helsinki, 10 July 1992, Para. 8).
  83. Geneva Report of the CSCE on National Minorities, 19 July 1991; Moscow Document on the Human Dimension of the CSCE, 3 October 1991.
  84. Prague Meeting of the CSCE Council, Summary of Conclusions, Prague, 30-31 January 1992, Para. 2.
  85. Helsinki Additional Meeting of the CSCE Council, Summary of Conclusions, Helsinki, 24 March 1992, Para. 2.
  86. Heinz Vetschera, 'Die Rolle des KSZE als Einrichtung kooperativer Sicherheit im Rahmen des 'interlocking institutions' Konzepts', in Bernard von Plate (ed.), Europa auf dem Wege zur kollektiven Sicherheit? Konzeptionelle und organisatorische Entwicklungen der sicherheitspolitischen Institutionen Europas, Baden-Baden, 1994, p. 122.
  87. Le Monde, 14 February 1992.
  88. It is interesting to note that the Interim Report of the CSCE Rapporteur Mission on the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh relates the views of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and Turkey as if they were the only external players, without any reference to Iran. (Interim Report, pp. 8-9).
  89. Seventh Meeting of the CSO, Journal No. l2, Annex 1, Prague, 28 February 1992.
  90. This agreement was adopted on 20 February 1992.
  91. Prague Meeting of the CSCE Council, Summary of Conclusions, Prague, 30-31 January 1992, Para. 7.
  92. For more details, see Eric Remacle,'The Yugoslav Crisis as aTest Case for the CSCE's Role in Conflict Prevention and Crisis Management',in Michael R. Lucas (ed.), The CSCE in the 1990s: Constructing European Security and Cooperation, Baden-Baden, 1993, pp. 109-123.
  93. Eighth Meeting of the CSO, Decisions on the Escalating Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Annex 2 to Journal No. l1, Prague, 13 March 1992.
  94. Cyrus Vance's fact-finding mission to the region took place at the same time and both diplomats had the opportunity to meet and to travel together (Felice D. Gaer, 'The United Nations and the CSCE: Cooperation, Competition, or Confusion?', in Michael R. Lucas (ed.), op. cit., p. 177).
  95. Helsinki Additional Meeting of the CSCE Council, Summary of Conclusions, Helsinki, 24 March 1992, Para. 6.
  96. Ibidem, Para. 9.
  97. This principle was adopted by the Prague Council on 30-31 January 1992 (CSCE Council, Prague Document on Further Development of CSCE Institutions and Structures, Prague, 30-31 January 1992, Paras. 3 and 25).
  98. Tenth Meeting of the CSO, Journal No. l1, Annexes 5 and 6, Prague, 29 April 1992, Para. 7.
  99. Felice D. Gaer, op. cit., p. 178.
  100. Eleventh Meeting of the CSO, Journal No. l4, Helsinki, 21 May 1992, pp. 2-4 (statements from Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia and USA) and Annex (US proposal).
  101. Felice D. Gaer, op. cit., p. 179.
  102. Elizabeth Fuller, ŽTranscaucasia: Ethnic Strife Threatens DemocratizationČ, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1 January 1993, pp. 17-24.
  103. Michael R. Lucas, 'The New Independent States and the CSCE', in Hans-Georg Ehrhart, Anna Kreikemeyer & Andrei V. Zagorski (eds), The Former Soviet Union and European Security: Between Integration and Re-Nationalization, Baden-Baden, 1993, p.197.
  104. CSCE Helsinki Summit, Helsinki Summit Declaration. Promises and Problems of Change, Helsinki, 10 July 1992, Paras. 20 & 25.
  105. Third Meeting of the CSCE Council, Decisions, 'Conflict Dealt with by the Conference on Nagorno-Karabakh', Stockholm, 14-15 December 1992.
  106. Seventeenth Meeting of the CSO, 'Document on Action Concerning Nagorno-Karabakh', Journal No. 2, Annex 1, Prague, 6 November 1992.
  107. Covcas Bulletin, 11 March 1993, p. 1; 1 April 1993, pp. 4-6. The Twelve EC Member States plus Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Hungary, Poland and Turkey.
  108. According to Paragraph 2.6, Annex 2 of the Berlin mechanism, the support of 12 States is required for such a request.
  109. UNSC Resolution 874 (14 October 1993), Para. 2. The same sentence is reproduced in UNSC Resolution 884 (12 November 1993), 2nd preamble.
  110. UNSC Resolution 822 (29 April 1993), Para. 1.
  111. UNSC Resolution 853 (29 July 1993), Para. 8.
  112. UNSC Resolutions 853 (29 July 1993), Para. 6; 874 (14 October 1993), Paras. 2, 3 and 5.
  113. UNSC Resolution 874 (14 October 1993), Para. 3.
  114. UNSC Resolution 874 (14 October 1993), Para. 7.
  115. UNSC Resolution 874 (14 October 1993), Para. 8.
  116. See UN Documents S/26184 (27 July 1993), p. 4; S/26522 (1 October 1993), p. 3; S/26718 (4 November 1993).
  117. UNSC Resolution 853 (29 July 1993), Para. 1.
  118. UNSC Resolution 884 (12 November 1993), Para. 1.
  119. UNSC Resolution 853 (29 July 1993), Para. 2.
  120. UNSC Resolutions 853 (29 July 1993), Para. 3 and 884 (12 November 1993), Para. 4.
  121. See UN Documents S/26184 (27 July 1993), S/26522 (1 October 1993) and S/26718 (4 November 1993).
  122. Twenty-First Meeting of the CSO, 'Report of the Chairman of the Conference on Nagorno-Karabakh and terms of reference for the Advance Monitoring Group', Journal No. 3, Prague, 28 April 1993.
  123. See for example Mario Raffaelli's report of 27 July 1993 to the President of the UN Security Council (Doc. UN/S/26184, 28 July 1993).
  124. European Political Co-operation, Declaration on the risk of civil war provoked by the rebellion in Azerbaijan, Brussels, 17 June 1993.
  125. Eighteenth Vienna Group of the CSO, Journal, Vienna, 24 June 1993, pp. 1-2.
  126. Twenty-second Meeting of the CSO, 'Statement on the conflict dealt with by the Conference on Nagorno-Karabakh', Journal No. 1, Annex 2, Prague, 29 June 1993; Twentieth Vienna Group of the CSO, Journal, Vienna, 15 July 1993 (Approval of the budget of a possible CSCE Mission to the area dealt with by the Conference on Nagorno-Karabakh); Twenty-third Meeting of the CSO, 'Text on the conflict dealt with by the Conference on Nagorno-Karabakh', Journal No. 3, Prague, 23 September 1993; Twenty-fourth Meeting of the CSO, Journal No. 3, Annex 3, Rome, 29 November 1993 (Approval of the 1994 budget for various activities related to the Minsk process); Twenty-fifth Meeting of the CSO, Journal No. 3, Prague, 4 March 1994, p. 3 (text about the Minsk Conference).
  127. Journal of the 23rd and 28th meetings of the Vienna Group of the CSO, Vienna, 3 August 1993 and 9 September 1993.
  128. Mario Raffaelli's Letter to the President of the Security Council on 1 October 1993 (Doc. UN/S/26522, 1 October 1993).
  129. At the same time, the Rome Council replaced Mario Raffaelli with Jan Eliasson, Head of the UN Humanitarian Department, as Chairman of the Minsk Conference. See Fourth CSCE Council, Journal No. 2, Rome, 1 December 1993, p. 3.
  130. Elizabeth Fuller, 'Russia, Turkey, Iran, and the Karabakh Mediation Process', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 3, No. 8, 25 February 1994, pp. 31-36.
  131. CSCE Helsinki Summit, Helsinki Summit Declaration. Promises and Problems of Change, Helsinki, 10 July 1992, Para. 20, subsection 2.
  132. Suzanne Crow, 'Russia Seeks Leadership in Regional Peacekeeping', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 2, No. 15, Munich, 9 April 1993, p. 29; Suzanne Crow, 'Russia Promotes the CIS as an International Organization', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 3, No. 11, 18 March 1994, pp. 33-38.
  133. Elizabeth Fuller, 'Russia's Diplomatic Offensive in the Transcaucasus', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 2, No. 39, 1 October 1993, p. 34.
  134. Elizabeth Fuller, 'Russia, Turkey, Iran, and the Karabakh Mediation Process', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 3, No. 8, 25 February 1994, p. 32.
  135. Twenty-third Meeting of the CSO, Journal No. 3, Prague, 23 September 1993, p. 3.
  136. Sessions of the Minsk Group were held in early September 1993, in late September 1993, in early November 1993 and in early February 1994.
  137. Elizabeth Fuller, 'Russia, Turkey, Iran, and the Karabakh Mediation Process', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 3, No. 8, 25 February 1994, p. 36.
  138. Budapest Summit Decisions, Budapest, 6 December 1994.
  139. Thirteenth Meeting of the CSO, Journal No. 5, Annex 1, Helsinki, 3 July 1992.
  140. Sixteenth Meeting of the CSO, 'Decisions on the Georgian-Ossetian Conflict', Journal No. 3, Annex 2, Prague, 18 September 1992.
  141. Seventeenth Meeting of the CSO, 'Personal Representative of the CSCE Chairman-in-Office for Georgia', Journal No. 2, Annex 2, Prague, 6 November 1992.
  142. Half of this force consisted of Russian troops, a quarter were Georgian troops and another quarter were South Ossetian militiamen.
  143. Eighteenth Meeting of the CSO, 'Decision on Georgia', Journal No. 3, Annex 1, Stockholm, 13 December 1992.
  144. Nineteenth Meeting of the CSO, 'Decision on Georgia', Journal No. 3, Annex 4, Prague, 4 February 1993; Twenty-second Meeting of the CSO, Journal No. 2, Annex 1, Prague, 30 June 1993; Tenth Plenary Meeting of the Permanent Committee, Journal, Vienna, 24 February 1994; Twenty-fifth Meeting of the CSO, 'Situation in the Republic of Georgia', Journal No. 2, Annex, Prague, 3 March 1994.
  145. On the different attempts at a cease-fire and the role of Russia, see Elizabeth Fuller, 'Transcaucasia: Ethnic Strife Threatens Democratization', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1 January 1993, pp. 17-24; Catherine Dale, 'Turmoil in Abkhazia: Russian Responses', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 2, No. 34, 27 August 1993, pp. 48-57; Elizabeth Fuller, 'Russia's Diplomatic Offensive in the Transcaucasus', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 2, No. 39, 1 October 1993, pp. 30-34.
  146. Report of 11 December 1992 (quoted in Felice D. Gaer, op. cit., p. 197).
  147. UN Doc. S/PV.3121, 8 October 1992, p. 4.
  148. Third Meeting of the CSCE Council, Decisions, 'Georgia', Stockholm, 14-15 December 1992.
  149. Twenty-First Meeting of the CSO, Journal No. 3, Prague, 28 April 1993, p. 7; Twenty-Third Meeting of the CSO, 'Statement on Georgia', Journal No. 2, Annex, Prague, 22 September 1993; Thirty-First Meeting of the Vienna Group of the CSO, 'Text on the Situation in Georgia', Journal, Annex 2, Vienna, 7 October 1993.
  150. Twenty-Second Meeting of the CSO, Journal No. 2, Annex 1, Prague, 30 June 1993.
  151. Twenty-Sixth Plenary Meeting of the Vienna Group of the CSO, Journal, Vienna, 26 August 1993, pp. 1-2.
  152. Ibidem.
  153. Fourth Meeting of the CSCE Council, Decisions, Rome, 30 November-1 December 1993, chapter I, point 3.3.
  154. Thirty-Fourth Meeting of the Vienna Group of the CSO, Journal, Vienna, 28 October 1993.
  155. Fourth Meeting of the CSCE Council, Decisions, Rome, 30 November-1 December 1993, chapter I, point 3.4.
  156. Ibidem, chapter I, point 3.5.
  157. See Elizabeth Fuller, 'Russia, Turkey, Iran, and the Karabakh Mediation Process', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, Vol. 3, No. 8, 25 February 1994, pp. 31-36.
  158. The same division of labour was used by the UN and the EC in Croatia.
  159. UNSC Resolution 934 (30 June 1994), Para. 2.
  160. CSCE Summit of Heads of State and Government, Helsinki Summit Declaration. Promises and Problems of Change, Helsinki, 10 July 1992, Paras. 20 and 25.
  161. The term "coercive actions" covers any military actions undertaken on the territory of a State without the consent of its internationally-recognized representatives.
  162. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, 'UN Peacekeeping in a New Era: a New Chance for Peace', The World Today, April 1993, p. 168. See also Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Report on UN Activities (Sept. 1992-Sept. 1993), New York, United Nations, Para. 323.
  163. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Report on UN Activities (Sept. 1991-Sept. 1992), New York, United Nations, Para. 126.
  164. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Report on UN Activities (Sept. 1991-Sept. 1992), New York, United Nations, Para. 126.
  165. See Olivier Paye, 'La cooperation CEE-ONU dans la guerre en ex-Yougoslavie', Memento Defense-desarmement 1993. L'Europe et la securite internationale, Brussels, Les dossiers du GRIP, Nos.177-181, January-May 1993, pp. 184-187.
  166. UN Document, S/26023 (1 July 1993), Para. 19.
  167. UN Document, S/26023 (1 July 1993), Para. 3.
  168. Fourth Meeting of the CSCE Council, Decisions, Rome, 30 November-1 December 1993.
  169. UN Document A/48/185, Annex II, Appendix.
  170. Budapest Summit Decisions, Budapest, 5-6 December 1994.


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