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. , , , , . : <http://www.vub.ac.be/POLI/>.

ISSN 10278540


3, No 1, 1997


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poo e eacoc p. C o pe oeco cop e e - oo caoe ocapc peec opao oe pee. oo e o a e, , e oee, opa cepee poc ox eacx ocapc (HH).

Ha cao ee oco x poce peopeee oe aopa, ae o, o ceac ocpaec a ce aop, cc oo e e oee peo oeeo e, oope a aoe ocee c o pe o copecoo pa. Xo acoee pe oeceoc o cex HH, ee e ea oa oecoo ac, a cox aao eopa (ee eeco, ee cocoo pac), cpaax, axoxc a aao ca caoe ocapceoc, cox paao ce ooecx apa, coa a co, oe peae, eo cee ec x ex pooee a CCCP, a ox ocapc.

He ae coe, o oc acee a ce occoeco pocpace cao pee. B ep oepe o poec cee:

  • pooe pe ca pooca, oce oo, a paee e xoce opa, xo-eo poo xo eopeococo a poo pe, o ce-e opee p cpa po, oaac paopa o pae epe a 15 ace;

  • peo ao aococoe acee, paee oepaeoe ocea, p caa ppox pecpco;

  • pocxo pea opa oaca, pace co axc coao oo;

  • po, pe paace o, ocoo -a epeeoc poe ecx ec.

Oao, ecoeo, o ooee copo eocpoa Cooo ooopa 1922 oa oaa o oaec oaeoo apca (apca-ea) oe oo epeec peee poc. ooe copoa cee oec ceee:

  • ox HH oac oooc ca pea aea cox ppox oac, oope o oo capoac eeco e ax ee. pepa cpa, oope o o o oo, oa oo-epeec pecpca Tpeca oaa ce pecpca Pocc. B e ao o ca Aepaa aaxca, a ae eoope pe cpa;

  • cpa c oee co poe pa pooex c c oee coo pooceo po o oooc cpee peooe o eeoo epaoaoo apoa: pepo c cpa a;

  • eooece op e e opaa ooec cex oc: epexo a poe ooe, xo o ox cpaax poxo c po , aac, copooae cee coaoo paccoe, ce e cocoe pec oopo e oc acee (, o pae epe, aoee opaoao, epo poo ee ac, oopa cox coecoo coaa a opeea a pao c aoopaoao eee epo ac acee) aepaoe aococoe ecpao oee cooe o cpae c e, o o peo paaa oeca ac epe epaoaoe xoco;

  • eoopx cpaax e poecc eopaa: xo cex eo oa cpo (a eoopx epaoaacx cpaax oapx aopap ococ a paee) ce e eaoao, o apo pae op, cox peaoo coaa (o c - peaoo oc eopa) c eoo opao ea ac CC;

  • aeo copaac oacoc paa poo o c 1/6 ac eo c (oceee ocoeco ocoeo ao poo acae).

poe oo, oe apeo po coeco-oceco oca oe c eoooc occaoe cex ex ecax a, co oopx - eee ppoe pecpc - cepa oce oa Coeco ac. Ceac eoope e xo coa o oax oex e, oepex ocoo ee. o occaoe CCCP c oo c, o oa o opo pa o e pe, o ee o e aaoc.

o pa ceo oc-coecoo pocpaca o oao, o eopaeca oaa - opee ppoe, coao-pe, oece ooece aop pa - ccoc a cecex pa a caoe ocapceoc, a eax ocoeocx pee coao-ooecx poe . Cee ec e oe, o e oee aop acoo co e eca apeo: ce o acoo ac p o pa, o oop, apep, o ppox pecpcax, e acac , o ooeco oeae, e oa a e ee o. Te e eee , o a aa peecoa ce.

p, o oo cxoa o co poea c p - , ece c e ee cepee pa coe pa. aae eopa ec opee p x pa. B acoc, oe a opoc - ao pee ee aop pa .

o pe eopaecoo oce, oe a oe oe oc-coecx pea.

aop oo cppoa epe p ooe: 1) ppoo-pecpc oea, 2) coao-p oea, 3) ooec oea, 4) poec oea.

p oaae opeee peeca o cpae c p peca aaa epao A (.. e HHû) c o pe aecx, ox, ecx, a , eoopo e, oex pecpco. Ha oe ceo - ocaoo ae pepeaoe pecpc (opcoe oepee, ope pope peo, aeooece pecpc).

aec pecpca, ocoeoc oooc ae, a ae o pecpca (peo co, e) p ooceo oee oaa, e oco px x HH. p oaae ece a peoo ax cpoo a eppop eo CCCP (ec e ca ooceo eaex aaoo - eopa Aepaae eooo aca pacoapco pae Pocc). a oe Epo oxca aeca a cocoa e opeeee peeca.

Oco ococo pecpcoo oeaa p oo ca oc opo op, oopoo e 9 15 x cox pec, o ce ce ocae e HH.

Oao ap c ococa ao opeeee eoca ppoo-pecpcoo oeaa p. Cpe x cpaeo oo ca cee:

Boe pecpc pacpeee epaoepo. oee aca ocoa p ee x o oe ee, e epeaea aaa ac. opoo oxoc ocoee poepeecoo oeaa opo cpa: oe oo a e e e xaa ecx aaooe, a ocpa aa p oe a co o oopo cpec.

ope eca e ppoooxpaoe pepeaooe aee ocapco e oe pape x po caa (aeoe ceee eco c aaa 1990-x oo cao c eopope ec acee c c e epeec pco cpae).

Pepeao oea po ocaae, ep oepe -a ooceo oaeoc p, o cpae co co oea opea Cpeeoope Aax; o-opx, epoopc peeax p, a pe cee (a ecoo px ec), eee peae (co o peeax Aap, ape) aaoepoecoo ceepoaepacoo opee, e, apep, Apaecoo ecoo ope. B acoee e pe ae oea pepea Pocc e pooa ee aaee. Bpoe, pepeaoo-pcec oea p oo cooa peaeo, o c peee ox aaooe ( p co oo oeco caa, o paccapaec aece oeoo aopa). epce aec op p, pacca a oee ceec ep, , ec acc ope peopa apea ooec aacpo, ca co ceee eco.

Ho ocoeo c eocao ppoo-pecpco ooe pa p ec occe acoee pe coo- px epax ox pecpco. oce coe aaco apaex p apa oo ooo oocex ecopoe aoo-o a oex coaex e ee eapooo ae. exaa ecx pecpco e aa cpe epeec oo, cococe ae pooca, peo xae ooec aac (ceee eca a oo) ca p acoc o x ocao oa (, Pocc). B cae oape cp coceo oo-epeeco a ca p oe peo ec e.

Booo, o aoee a pe aop pa cpa. p ec aee c, ce oopx coa opaoaoc acee: acee ee cee opaoae (350 1989 .), a ee ce oo - eaoeoe cee, cpeee ceaoe cpeee. ae ec peae a x e e ooc cooec po caapa, o x oeee (apep, eopaecoe, ooecoe, eopaoe) aeo oaec o oee aoopaoao acc accecx paaxc cpaax oce x HH. B cao ee, xo p oa opa cac paaec cpa, ocpooco acee ec axoc a poe pax cpa, ooo co opeece caap poa aa.

co oo ca opao e aa aeo ac acee p o opa , ee px x HH, o peopeeeo paeoc, , o pae epe, ocaoo oocoao peee pco a paea, aao a.

Cece ocaoo oocea xopoo oooea eeaa a ( o, o po aa eee). Xo oa e pecae coo eac oec, , e oee, ooec c, ee e a eaeao coo.

Hecop a oooc eopa, eopa, o pae epe opoco, coe ea coce op eeo apoa: oeca pa, xo eeo, o pace.

Haceee oaec ocaoo coo coao ooc. Coaa cppa acee ooceo cao cpapoaa: o cece coao o, pooo eee ce ece apaeo a cpae pae e ce ec po, e opoo epee. Xo e ce ace o o o oeac oaoo, o pae epe c oo copo ec ooe pea - acoee pe o occe coaa apeoc.

B 20-o coe paec aepac ocoa pco a (a ae - apcoo - a) , ecop a ope o ex c, ae eee o paacx o (1991-1993 .), o cec e aoc cpa peo, aceee pa cec pa p. Po cooo opoa Tc, oeppeo o pe ceo ec pcoo acee cpa caeo a oo a, po epeoe.

Po ce pocex ce ce ee ea. o o oo paccapa a aop, opeeeo epe cococ a opae, o c, e, a ececo, oco, paoa, o eo aoap coo po x ce coaa ec ocex e paoepo pacpeeac a ce oeco opaaa oooc coa pe. oo oea oo aopa oe .

Bece c e ec p opaex oaaee coao-po ooe pa p.

Hecpppoaoc coao cpp po o, o paec e ec cpee acc. Xo aao pao epape oa poec ee pa po cpeeo acca (epeo accopeo c eo pe), oao co, o ae ocaoo oo poea ooec oeceeoo cpeeo co oo c apao oeco ooeco caoc ocapca: aoe aceee e aepecoao ecaa, oco e ec o ep. B acox e cox epexooo epoa, oa poe ooe ee e ooc op, e poecc eceoo coaoo paccoe. oco paa p, , axoc a pa apaa. B ep oepe o acaec ocapcex cax, aocx paox, , acx o epo apa, a aac ex ae ee, oo acc ecoepo. A o coca ae ac eopaa, cocooo pooocoa a paae oppeop. ac oa e poo occ o ep ooec oocoa, o ec peopa.

Haaa e copea cpaa 1930-40-x oo pea oppoa aocx paox a ce pec. Tpoe a, poeccoa paox eocaoo co. pa oo cee ca ooe eo pa oe aa o eo, epeo a coecx pepx, o copooaoc oopaeco p oeoc a cex pox. oo, p occ aepax co, eco pooca opeococooo oapa oc a a ce ca opoo po, a o o e cococoao , aeca pox pecpco.

Cepe eocao coao cpp cee ca aoceoc ca ooo cecx aoax oepcx apo. o ocoeo eo pooc o pe oex oo a eppop cpa, oa po oex oapo o ea aapc.

Ccea aae xocex pooee ca apx oepo, paoaac CCCP, oe c ceaa 1990-e o aec cocea a aoepa peopo, oop ecoco paopac pox ooex peoa opo peop, ec c oo a paeco, e, co oepe, o pae epe ac oo o cao oooe, o opppoa. Ta opao, ooeca a eocao ooa o ooecx peop.

Caa oeca a. oe aooe ap e e eo opea a opeeee co.

Ha opao-pace oea a opaeo oo xo peeoe (1992-95 .), o oaoe pcce o acx cppax opoeo pax eeo. e x pcc oe poc aee, ocoeoc cce eopoo a ooee ooe 1990x .

, . 1990-91 . . oa e aoc coa oepaac eae cex ecx ec (ooo 25% ceo acee). To, o o e aec eoop pa cpaa c e cae eacoc, caoe eee. Coac p ca (oaac o aaoo ca o cex ocax HH) - pea aoao o coecoo ocapca, e e paaoc paaco cox pec, paac o aoaoc, oeaeo o pee acope. C po copo, cooc po acc ecx ec p coco x paeoc pa p pa. Pe, oeo e, e e o eco acc, a o caoocp ce paaa p ee ec paopo e, a caa, o oeco acc. oo oo e oc cox co ocapceoc, eo ooeco caoc eeaeca e. coae, ce co oa occ.

ee o ace. Xo ocoa p paec aepea, ae pocex epapo paoopx eccex (, ) o, opeex ac ee aao p, acoc, a eppop Axa, a opeee ae epa p (ceapac, poccce aoa-oc) a paco a.

ooec oea p p CCCP ocpoe a ooo o ceaa: cecoxocea ceaa a a a po, a a pcoe - aao p, exec opa ( oeec poeoc) p - ocoo ac cpa. o c po a aeea a e, aopaop, oxpae o ope, coec po. poe oo, cepe oxo poc aaooco oeoco. Cooeceo, paoax c ao ceaae aepaoe acocoe acee o ceo co (o coec epa). poeoc a ocaoo ecpoaa, . Tp x cooc opaaae poeoc coaaoc eo eo ee opac, po oopx a a ceco po. oee coe opac pecae epo epoexec pep, eo paoa a ceco B.

o copoa ooecoo oeaa p oo oec ae ocaoo pao execo pacpp ( opo, , oocaee, aoce ocpo ..), oopa xo aec aex aaooex oepa, o cocoa opa.

C oa 1995 oa, oce ee aoao a, cpae c oeco ooeco ape pec opaa, oop paec opoa opaoe pae cpa, aoc ocao aee pooca cpoa oee ooeco eeoc.

Hae exec opaoaoo eepoo cpeeo epcoaa ocaoo ooceoo paoeo acca ae oo aca a a.

B eo epcee ooe aopo oaec paa poex pep e.

- - oooc poc epe co eppop popoo c aco e .

Hecop a p co ooecoo oeaa eae aop ooeco ooe cpa ae ooo eco. B ocoo o ca c e, o eopa epeea.

Heoxooc poop ce acaa cecx (a oac opocx) ee e cpp cecoo xoca epexo a oapaoe xoco: a po oaae eee 20% pooo po, o c op Tp, paa ax poo a, oope oe o poee a ece.

, . Heea aee paoaa cecoo xoca aeo copa , aoc o ceope. Bao, o o pooo cox ooecoo oea, a c coa apeoc, oopa oe ( oe-e e oa) c c epeeo eeo coceoc.

pec e cpp poeoc, ocoeoc po pex poex ao (o ec epa, ececeo) - oeo epo eap, aocpoe - oopx cpea aa oaaac a peo, a cocea po - eopeoccoo a poo pe. Cppa epecpoa oca oo pep ee opac a opo.

Beeooece c p pxoc e a xo: o epeopepc a aa (Tp, Epoa) a oco (pa, epaa A). B o epe o , peopeeeo pee cexo (oc, ca, p cao ao coec opeeex ex po Pocc) ceapaa Axa , oac, e o Oce (epe oce e poxo acoo ae pacope apep, a epe Axa). o ooec oceo p o paee aeeo opaea - Poccco eepa. co, o ec o Axa e e cepa, pacopa c e e occaoea, epe eoopoe pe Pocc opao opoe ooec oa opa paee o a pco pe.

Bc execa pacppa coaa o coec caapa, o ape copeco p c epoec cpaa, .

Tpaoe ooee p, oe a oo oee a, o ce Pocc, o oeco ecaa p, ec e e oc o ocecc a eapoo poe. Ta opao, opeeex coe oo oa ae o ooecoo aopa - pacopo-eopaecoo, - cocooo ep p cpp poxocex ce, cap epoo.

e coo coe, pae ocapca eooo e pee caoc - aee cocae poecoo oeaa.

ca poecoo oeaa p pae ocaoo poac epe eopaa, o cpae co ce p HH, cpoeco ecox oeaoax ap, cocox a ce o pae ocapco.

, , , ( , ).

pe oo, eopaeco oc (c 1995 .) poeee ocaoo eopaecx apaecx peecx opo (op 1995 .), oope oce peoo pa coo cpae, oceoaa a ocoa epao ac, pee ocapco. Bpoeca caa aco oe eee. .

pxoc oop o eax copoax oeco .

oce opee eacoc, p e coa oc peeo pa cooeceo oeco caoc oeo cec pe aop: ) oecoo cocaa acee, e oeeoo oepaaco ee (c. e); ) paec eepaoo acpao-oecoo cpoca, aaoo e ee aae 1920-x oo; ) occ oooeo oeco ooeco op (ap, x, ee oceca; px ex coax p, ooec e acx o ocapca) cocoo cpo ac p epa ee; ) . epe a aopa e poe eopaecoe paee: epepoc x poe ocoe poe coxpae eppopao eococ .

Ha ae aaa pacaa coecoo ocapca, oe 1980 x , p poc ce ceapacce ee epepx peoax, aceex ec peo eca, o aaoc px HH. Ta, e x ec aoo (.e. aop eepaoo cpoca), ae ee oee . epaoo paeca p, a ocecoo (o op 1990 .), a aoacecoo (1990-91 .), ao cocoo ceeo eo, e oee opao eex Boeoo Coea occoea 1992 oa, e oaaoc ocaoo ecx opapeo, a oe c, , ocoeo, ooex co peooe ax ee. oceoae pee o, pee paec peaa - o aeca paea ocapca acca (, ) pee epeeex, oeoex e - ae ec cppoa e ( e po coc), oao co cpoopoa pax pooee a o ceoo coca. .

eopaa oeco , a apa caoc, a e a oce HH, ee e oe cac eopa poecco.

epee aae 1992 . oe e paee eao pao , xo eeo ec aepeop pea epeca cpa, cococoao paco oeca, ao paac o, , ececeo, e cococoao oeco caa. e cpaca co cea ce aop ecocooc pooee po oc coea c epoc, occe pa opocca. ce oe aopo - occe peao op, cocoo ooa apo . A capa a ( coc - ee apa oeapa, coaa cox coeco ac), ececeo e po ooc oo ac, oopa , oo .

B aco oe, oa pee o ee e pee, po oop o cooa poecoo oeaa cpoec oo p.

aop cppoa p ooe: 1) eooec oec cpa; 2) oeca ca cpaax, oopx p pecae coo cep eo ax epeco.

c coc ao cao cpao, p ac o ex aopo pa e ee, a ooo, oe, epe, e o pex aopo. , . , , .

ooe copo p c o, o cpaa e ee eppopax pee oo cox cocee. . B ee aoax epecax - coxpaee ( occaoee) cac-o peoe. ooa peoca ce coce oooc ooecx oao epe co eppop, apep Tp c Pocce, Pocc c Apee, peoca oc opc opa Ape Aepaa.

B opeeeo epe eooec aopo (oe, oee ooaoo, e paecoo coca) c o, o eee eoo pee Tc c po-opaoae epo aaa, e pocxoa oooa aoax apo ceepo-aacx aoax aoo. a Ceepo aae o oe e aaec o ce e.

Oao o- ooee e ooe p coa ce eoacoc. , (, , , ), - . ooec ce oee eco oape e epa - Tp Pocc - opao e e oe pa, aec pooco p p: po-pea paa co copo p oxpaec poccc opaoca. Pocc opo a oee a p Ape: a, poe ceo poeo, aee a Tp, oopa ce ee paccapaec Pocce aece cpaeecoo poa. Pocc opao ee coacac apoa co a Aepaaa, oa o copee ceo aee a pa (oce paccapaec poccc oooa, a eee oac coep e a oea co ).

Hecop a oaec aoc p c e caacpoa cox ex ce, oco poo eooecx pax aaae ocaec Pocc. oa ocee o ooe p ocea: e eoxoa opao eoca eaca, o aec caa aca (o Pocc) p. oo ce o p peceac c cooae pax .

, : , . , . , Pocc ooc poo aopa: p cea e e paocao-xpcac p, e p caa. Pocc o pa, o p pa oo ae e a opeeee axae ep. Ta, apep, oo e-ao o (a ce p) eco axaco ocapc, o cx op ee eo, Pocc eae a, : a) ooe coa peee pacoa HH, o eoo e cao c eo a P aoax peoo, aeex aoo paa; ) Axa o ceepoaacoo ceapaa; ) cpe cee Tp aaae.

oaec, o p oaae opo eooec p: e ea ec o Pocc. pe a axaco pe: ec, oac pe poe Axa p e, ocpeco ocpeeca Pocc, p opee eoaa pocccx oex a cae poo eac o, pace , o-cec, ae e cepee p, poa pacoa pco a. ao , o Pocc oo p coa ap, coco pe poe ceapaa aooe oo, a o pea Xopa Cepco pae.

cpaax, oopx p pecae coo cep eo ax epeco, ae ec e aopo. , , , . , . .

oco ope aa paccao oecx c epeco cocex epa pox epo ( ) xo a pa ao , opac ocaae oo, o p ao aoe eapooe oecoe pae, oopoe cape ca a occoeco pocpace e e ea po peopa. Taa ca ac ooe aopo cpoeca oo p.

Ooceo opae e aopo oa ca oea Pocc c, opo axc occao CCCP, o pxo ac Tp cacx aeaco. , c po copo, aoe pae oe ao aecoa pe, po ee c, oope acoee pe eee ae.

B eo pee aop cpoeca oo p oo oe a aope, eaope. Mc pex aopo aeo epe peoo, pe oo pee c. Mc ex aopo : a eaope, aope. o o cae o ac eo cooa ae oooc, poope e coepa ca . ae aoee coa poea eooecoo oeca - - e pecaec aao: oee caacpoaa e oa, cpoae ooecoo pa eopaa oeco - o, oe oo, , ec aoae epec p - , caoe aoe, ocee oo, o p caa cpaeec a ooec apepo pax cpa, oe oo pee ox pex poe.


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 * , .

 ** - , aep coao-ooeco oeco eopa Tccoo ocaceoo epcea ( 1998 - ).


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